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Pakistan is not a secular state; the state religion is Islam, and religion enters many aspects of Pakistani political and social life.
Pakistan's presidents in the 1950s and 1960s were army generals who assumed the highest political office.
Hundreds of thousands of Hindus and Muslims died in the riots that followed independence, as Muslims from India migrated to Pakistan and Hindus who lived in the newly created Pakistan streamed into India.
Refugee camps were created on both sides of the border between the two countries to deal with these mass migrations.
In 1971, Pakistan was divided again as a result of ethnic insurgency in its Eastern wing, which was populated mainly by Bengali-speaking Muslims, and the subsequent war with neighboring India.
As a result of this division, a new sovereign country—Bangladesh—was created; Pakistan has since recognized Bangladesh and has established diplomatic and trading relations with the new nation.