Radiochemical dating uses

By using especially sensitive methods for monitoring radioactive decay, it is possible to detect the presence of single atoms of a radioisotope and to establish the fact of their decay.

The objects of radiochemical investigations are radioactive substances containing radioisotopes, many of which are characterized by a short lifetime and nuclear (radioactive) radiation, which necessitates the use of special methods of investigation.Radioisotopes are also obtained artificially by irradiating various substances with nuclear particles. In many cases, hundreds, tens, or even just a few atoms of radioisotopes are present in many other atoms.(Only in the production of nuclear fuel is Pu obtained in significant quantities, though even here its concentration upon irradiation of U with neutrons is low.) It is therefore possible to separate radioactive elements and isotopes only from extremely dilute systems, and their weights in most cases cannot be determined.General radio-chemistry includes the study of isotopic exchange, processes involving the distribution of trace amounts of radioisotopes between phases, processes of coprecipitation, adsorption, and extraction, the electrochemistry of radioactive elements, and the state of radioisotopes in extremely dilute systems—the dis-persity of the elements (formation of radiocolloids) and the formation of complexes.The chemistry of nuclear transformations includes the study of the reactions of atoms formed in nuclear transformations (hot atoms), the products of nuclear reactions, and the methods for obtaining, concentrating, and separating radioisotopes and their nuclear isomers.

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In chemistry the ideal tracer has the same chemical properties as the molecule it replaces and undergoes the same reactions but can at all times be detectible and..... Radioisotopes, which differ little in their chemical properties from nonradioactive isotopes, are present, though in extremely low concentrations, in ores and other natural substances, in products obtained synthetically, and in the solutions formed after processing raw materials.

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