Relative dating notes

The filioque was now formally considered by the Eastern church to be a heresy.

The murder of Emperor Michael by the usurper Basil the Macedonian, in 867, resulted in the actual deposition of Photios and the re-installation of Ignatius.

This contest also played a role in several other theological battles, from the Arian controversy to the struggles over Nestorianism (a view that Christ consisted of two distinct natures) and Monophysitism (a view that Christ has only one nature), the so-called Meletian schism, the Three Chapters controversy, and the battles over Iconoclasm.

However, the practice of adding the filioque was retained in many parts in the West in spite of this papal advice.A council was convened with over a thousand clergymen attending.This synod excommunicated Pope Nicholas and condemned his claims of papal primacy, his interference in the newly converted churches of Bulgaria, and the innovative addition of the filioque clause to the western version of the Nicene Creed.Meanwhile, in 858, the Byzantine Emperor Michael III removed Patriarch Ignatius I as patriarch of Constantinople for political reasons and replaced him with the future Saint Photios, a layman and noted scholar who had previously been imperial secretary and diplomat.A controversy ensued, and the emperor called a synod to which Pope Nicholas I was invited to resolve the matter.

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Other Latin Church Fathers also spoke of the Spirit proceeding from both the Father and the Son.

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